Type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Type 1 is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can occur at any time. People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin from an injection or a pump to manage their diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 95% of all cases diagnosed in adults. Several studies have shown that healthy eating, regular physical activity, and weight loss used with medication if prescribed, can help control complications from type 2 diabetes or can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes is diagnosed in 2 to 10% of pregnant women. Gestational diabetes can cause health problems during pregnancy for both the child and mother. Children whose mothers had gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although gestational diabetes often goes away after pregnancy, about half of all women who have gestational diabetes get type 2 diabetes later in life.
Some people with diabetes don’t have any of these signs or symptoms. The only way to know if you have diabetes is to have your doctor do a blood test.
A urine analysis may show high blood sugar. But a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes. Your health care provider may suspect that you have diabetes if your blood sugar level is higher than 200 mg/dL. To confirm the diagnosis, one or more of the following tests must be done.
Fasting blood glucose test, hemoglobin A1c test, and oral glucose tolerance test are blood test that can be done to diagnose diabetes.
Screening for type 2 diabetes in people who have no symptoms is recommended for: overweight children who have other risk factors for diabetes (starting at age 10), overweight adults (BMI greater than 25) who have other risk factors, and adults over age 45.
Research has shown that the following lifestyle modifications can prevent, or at least delay the onset of type 2 diabetes among people at risk of diabetes: